Electron Shells and Orbitals

Electron Shells Electron shells and orbitals hold electrons in a specific pattern. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons must equal the number of protons. This makes the number of electrons equal to an element’s atomic number. The electrons reside somewhere away from the nucleus. The positive charge concentrates in a small central nucleus, […]

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Molecular Shape

Molecular Shape Important   The structure of a molecule is not complete until you know the molecular shape. Molecules which have seemingly an identical molecular shape often have very different chemical properties.     The featured image above shows a flow chart you can use to deduce the electron geometry and molecular geometry of simple […]

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polar and nonpolar molecules

Polar Molecule and Nonpolar Molecule

The difference between a polar molecule and a nonpolar molecule depends on molecular geometry. Polar Bonds   Polar result when two different elements share electrons and form a covalent bond. Each element has a characteristic electronegativity. A more electronegative element has a stronger attraction for electrons it shares in a bond.          […]

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Electronegativity and Polarity

Bond polarity comes from different elements having different electronegativity; the innate ability to attract electrons within a covalent bond. Electronegativity   Each element has a value for electronegativity to compare how two atoms distribute negative charge when they share electrons.   Electronegativity Property of Atoms       Electronegativity expresses an element’s ability to attract […]

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Dimensional Analysis in Chemistry

    One of the first road blocks you might find when you start chemistry is how to do dimensional analysis problems.     Dimensional analysis problems do not lend themselves to memorization. The first factor of frustration comes when being able to solve a problem does not boil down to finding which equation to […]

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adamantine structure of quartz

Chemistry of Solids

    Solid State Chemistry     The World of Solids Waits

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How to Study Chemistry

After so much advice on how to study chemistry, it is obvious a lot of “information” is not really helpful. What You Usually Hear There must be better advice than “to study more” , “remove distractions”, “eat well”, “make a schedule”, and “get organized”. Many schemes and systems rely on six different hi-lite colors, fold […]

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Ions: Predict Charge

The Periodic Table   You use the periodic table to assign standard charges to ions.    Main Group and Transition Metals   To assign charges to ions, you must recognize these rules apply to main group elements. The other elements correspond to transition metals and post transition metals. You can not transfer the same rules […]

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Isotopes

Consider only the nucleus when you are concerned with isotopes. Electrons play no part in isotopes or the atomic mass, Figure 2. Only protons and neutrons contribute to the mass of an isotope.

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Matter: Composition

Matter by Composition   You can describe matter based on composition. This means you describe collections of matter based on what makes it up. The first kind of description refers to whether or not you want to describe a pure substance or mixture.           Pure Substance or Mixture   The components […]

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