Weak Acids

Weak acids play a prominent role in organic chemistry. Hydrogen cations (H+1), “protons”, are frequently found in an initial or final step of a sequence of fundamental steps in the process of an organic reaction. Biochemistry also relies heavily on a knowledge of weak acids: catalysis, metabolism, and structural proteins.     Overview of Strong […]

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Polyhedral Models

Introduction to Polyhedral Models     An alternative to represent ionic compounds is to use polyhedral models. When we can see the way in which three=dimensional shapes represent the individual units, it helps visualize long range order. The crystal structure model becomes unwieldy when you represent long range order in the form of multiples of […]

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Solid Voids

  To grasp the structure of metals and ionic compounds, you must account for the solid voids. As atoms occupy lattice points, they create a pattern of empty spaces between atoms.     Empty space resides within an extended array of atoms or ions. The character of solid voids produces the properties of alloys, the […]

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How Atoms Pack

How atoms pack give rise to their chemical and physical properties. The way atoms stack into three layers produce the three most important unit cells: body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, and hexagonal unit cells.

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Ionic Compounds

Why Care About Ionic Compounds?         The reason ionic compounds are important might not be obvious you. The first time you see them, is usually in general chemistry. Yet no one explains what they do.     As a result, ionic compounds end up as the poor cousin to molecular compounds. This […]

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Bonds From Atoms

  Bonds form from atoms when electrons feel nearby atoms.  Outer electrons rearrange to possess lower energy. This happens three ways.    An element is either a metal or nonmetal. Recall the periodic table has two general regions: metals and nonmetals, Figure 1. There Are Three Kinds of Bonds       The kind of […]

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period table in blueprint

What is Chemistry? Answered!

  Every concept in a chemistry textbook  solves a problem.   Unlike what chemists do in movies, chemists do not just mix things together to see what will happen.   Maybe a problem gets solved by a new material with desired properties. Chemists apply  knowledge to the practical world to make life better. Urgent needs […]

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Significant Figures

  Why Significant Figures     Significant figures preserve the precision of measurements.  You record data and use numerical values in calculations. Further calculations can only be as accurate as the as the measurements from an experiment. Use of a specific set of rules prevents calculation results more precise than an original measurement.   Chemistry […]

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Autoionization of Water

The autoionization of water describes when water reacts with water in a solution of water. This forms the basis of understanding aqueous acid base chemistry.     Do not suspect a chemical process occurs only when chemicals dissolves in water.     Despite what most people believe when they look at an ordinary glass of […]

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