koi fish head to tail

Chemical Equilibrium

A central idea used to predict how chemicals react to form products, is the concept of chemical equilibrium. Chemical equations show reactants with arrows transform into products. However, many reactions do not completely transform all the reactants into products.       Many reactions result in a mixture of reactants and products. Reactions undergo the […]

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orbital hybridization

Orbital Hybridization

Orbital Hybridization   Orbital hybridization controls the local geometry around an atom. More than any other factor, the hybridization state of electron orbitals is responsible for the shape of molecules.   Solitary atoms undergo orbital hybridization under the influence of interactions with other atoms. This allows orbitals with different energies and different shapes to mix […]

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Electron Configurations: First Three Rows

Electron Configurations Up To 3rd Period   The electron configurations and orbital diagrams of the first three rows (periods) of the periodic table occupy an important role. The configurations form the basis of chemical behavior.   Periodic Table to Electron Shells   Periods and Electron Shells       The rows of the periodic table […]

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Electron Shells and Orbitals

Electron Shells Electron shells and orbitals hold electrons in a specific pattern. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons must equal the number of protons. This makes the number of electrons equal to an element’s atomic number. The electrons reside somewhere away from the nucleus. The positive charge concentrates in a small central nucleus, […]

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Molecular Shape

Molecular Shape Important   The structure of a molecule is not complete until you know the molecular shape. Molecules which have seemingly an identical molecular shape often have very different chemical properties.     The featured image above shows a flow chart you can use to deduce the electron geometry and molecular geometry of simple […]

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polar and nonpolar molecules

Polar Molecule and Nonpolar Molecule

The difference between a polar molecule and a nonpolar molecule depends on molecular geometry. Polar Bonds   Polar result when two different elements share electrons and form a covalent bond. Each element has a characteristic electronegativity. A more electronegative element has a stronger attraction for electrons it shares in a bond.          […]

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Electronegativity and Polarity

Bond polarity comes from different elements having different electronegativity; the innate ability to attract electrons within a covalent bond. Electronegativity   Each element has a value for electronegativity to compare how two atoms distribute negative charge when they share electrons.   Electronegativity Property of Atoms       Electronegativity expresses an element’s ability to attract […]

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Dimensional Analysis in Chemistry

    One of the first road blocks you might find when you start chemistry is how to do dimensional analysis problems.     Dimensional analysis problems do not lend themselves to memorization. The first factor of frustration comes when being able to solve a problem does not boil down to finding which equation to […]

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adamantine structure of quartz

Chemistry of Solids

    Solid State Chemistry     The World of Solids Waits

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