Weak Acids

Weak acids play a prominent role in organic chemistry. Hydrogen cations (H+1), “protons”, are frequently found in an initial or final step of a sequence of fundamental steps in the process of an organic reaction. Biochemistry also relies heavily on a knowledge of weak acids: catalysis, metabolism, and structural proteins.     Overview of Strong […]

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orbital hybridization

Orbital Hybridization

Orbital Hybridization   Orbital hybridization controls the local geometry around an atom. More than any other factor, the hybridization state of electron orbitals is responsible for the shape of molecules.   Solitary atoms undergo orbital hybridization under the influence of interactions with other atoms. This allows orbitals with different energies and different shapes to mix […]

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Molecular Shape

Molecular Shape Important   The structure of a molecule is not complete until you know the molecular shape. Molecules which have seemingly an identical molecular shape often have very different chemical properties.     The featured image above shows a flow chart you can use to deduce the electron geometry and molecular geometry of simple […]

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polar and nonpolar molecules

Polar Molecule and Nonpolar Molecule

The difference between a polar molecule and a nonpolar molecule depends on molecular geometry. Polar Bonds   Polar result when two different elements share electrons and form a covalent bond. Each element has a characteristic electronegativity. A more electronegative element has a stronger attraction for electrons it shares in a bond.          […]

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Electronegativity and Polarity

Bond polarity comes from different elements having different electronegativity; the innate ability to attract electrons within a covalent bond. Electronegativity   Each element has a value for electronegativity to compare how two atoms distribute negative charge when they share electrons.   Electronegativity Property of Atoms       Electronegativity expresses an element’s ability to attract […]

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